How is mesothelioma staged?
Staging can be clinical or pathological. Clinical staging relies on scanning tests and x-rays. Pathological staging refers to staging done at surgery. Staging is the process of finding out how far the cancer has spread. Staging of mesothelioma is based on imaging studies such as x-rays, CT scans, and MRI scans. The treatment and outlook for patients with
mesothelioma largely depends on the stage (extent of spread) of their cancer. Since pleural mesothelioma occurs most frequently and has been studied the most, it is the only mesothelioma for which a staging classification exists
Malignant mesothelioma moves through four stages, each one more serious than the next. The cancer is described as localized if it is found only on the lining surface where it originated. If the cancer has spread beyond the original site to other parts of the body, such as the lymph nodes, chest wall, or abdominal organs, it is considered as advanced. The stage of the cancer will determine treatment options and helps determine the prognosis of the disease. Pleural mesothelioma is the only mesothelioma that has a staging system. But the clinical staging systems are considered inadequate due to the way the disease spreads.
Three staging systems are currently used, and each one measures slightly different things. Brigham system is the latest system, which stages mesothelioma according to the ability to surgically remove it and lymph node involvement. Butchart staging system is based upon how far the disease has spread to and invaded other organs. TNM system considers variables of tumor mass and spread, involvement of lymph nodes, and metastasis.
The Butchart system is based mainly on the size of the primary (original) tumor. The most aged and antique staging process and the sole system most unremittingly utilized is the Butchart System which is based chiefly on the degree and scope of primary tumor mass and sections mesotheliomas into four diverse stages. The more topical TNM system deems and contemplates variables of tumor in mass and spread, lymph node inculcation, and metastasis. The Brigham System is the grandest system and stages mesothelioma in accordance to resectability or more eruditely comprehended as the capability to surgically eliminate, and lymph node involvement. Butchart System defines the extent of primary tumor mass. Stage I involves and cedes to the affirmation that mesothelioma is established in the left or right pleura and may moreover inculcate the diaphragm on the same side. Stage II instills the reliance that mesothelioma encroaches the chest wall or infects the esophagus, heart, or pleura on both sides. Probably, lymph nodes in the chest might too be involved. Stage III extrapolates that mesothelioma has permeated through the diaphragm and into the peritoneum or lining of the abdominal cavity. Lymph nodes past those in the chest might haply also be implicated. Stage IV insists that there is pellucid evidence of metastasis or allocation of it through the bloodstream to sundry organs.
The TNM system considers the size and spread of the tumor, involvement of lymph nodes (parts of the lymphatic system that is responsible for draining waste fluid from body tissues), and how far the tumor has spread (metastasis). Stage I of the TNM System involves the lining of the right or left lung, pericardium, or diaphragm on the same side. At this stage, lymph nodes are not involved. Stage II begins when mesothelioma spreads from the lining of the lung on one side to a lymph node on the same side. At this stage, the cancer may also spread to the lung, pericardium, or diaphragm on the same side. Stage III begins when mesothelioma exists in the chest wall, muscle, ribs, heart, esophagus, or other organs in the chest on the same side as the primary tumor. In the final stage, Stage IV, the mesothelioma has spread into the lymph nodes in the chest on the side opposite the primary tumor, or extends into the lung opposite the primary tumor, or directly into the organs in the abdominal cavity or neck. Metastasis is included in this stage.
The Brigham system stages mesothelioma according to the likelihood of surgical removal (resectability) and lymph node involvement. The Brigham System concerns itself primarily with the resectability (or ability to surgically remove) the mesothelioma mass. In Stage I the tumor is resectable and lymph nodes are unaffected. In Stage II the tumor remains respectable but the mesothelioma affects the lymph nodes. In Stage III the tumor becomes unresectable and extends into the chest wall, heart, or through the diaphragm, peritoneum. Stage III can occur with or without lymph node involvement. Stage IV occurs when doctors discover metastasic disease of distant organs.
More information on mesothelioma cancer
What is mesothelioma cancer? - Mesothelioma (cancer of the mesothelium) is a disease in which cells of the mesothelium become abnormal and divide without control or order.
What types of mesothelioma are there? - Mesotheliomas consist of two general types-benign and malignant. Malignant mesothelioma is a cancerous tumor of the pleura.
What is pleural mesothelioma? - Pleural mesothelioma is a cancer of the cells that make up the pleura or lining around the outside of the lungs and inside of the ribs.
What is peritoneal mesothelioma? - Peritoneal mesothelioma is a cancer affecting the abdominal lining, or peritoneum. Peritoneal mesothelioma is a tumor of this membrane.
What is malignant mesothelioma? - Malignant mesothelioma is a cancer in which cancer (malignant) cells are found in the sac lining the chest (the pleura) or abdomen (the peritoneum).
What causes mesothelioma? - Asbestos exposure is the main cause of mesothelioma. The chances of suffering from mesothelioma rise with the intensity and duration of exposure to asbestos.
What're the risk factors for mesothelioma? - The main risk factors for malignant mesothelioma is exposure to asbestos. Other risk factors include radiation, zeolite, tobacco, and SV40 Virus.
Who's at increased risk for developing mesothelioma? - Family members and others living with asbestos workers have an increased risk of developing mesothelioma.
Asbestos and mesothelioma - Asbestosis, mesothelioma, and lung cancer are the three most frequent causes of death and disease among people with heavy asbestos exposure.
Where is asbestos found? - Asbestos has been widely used in many industrial products. Exposure to asbestos can occur in home improvement and construction projects.
When is asbestos dangerous? - Asbestos is hazardous when it is friable. The most common way for asbestos fibers to enter the body is through breathing.
How to reduce asbestos exposure? - Reducing exposure to asbestos by repairing damaged material will involve covering the material or sealing asbestos material.
What's the mesothelioma survival rate? - Mesothelioma is a serious disease. The average age at diagnosis is 50 to 70 years old. The average survival time is about one year.
What're the symptoms of mesothelioma? - Symptoms of mesothelioma include pain in the lower back or at the side of the chest, cough, fever, sweating, fatigue, and weight loss.
How is mesothelioma diagnosed? - Diagnosis of mesothelioma begins with a review of the patient's medical history, including any history of asbestos exposure.
How is mesothelioma staged? - Staging of mesothelioma is based on imaging studies such as x-rays, CT scans, and MRI scans. Malignant mesothelioma moves through four stages.
What's the treatment for mesothelioma? - Treatment for mesothelioma cancer include surgery, radiation therapy, and chemotherapy. Surgery is a common treatment for mesothelioma.
Treatment of malignant mesothelioma by stage - Most patients with stage I mesothelioma have their cancer surgically removed by pleurectomy/decortication or extrapleural pneumonectomy.
Surgery for mesothelioma - Surgery for malignant mesothelioma can be aimed at long-term control of the cancer (aggressive surgery) or relief of symptoms (palliative procedures).
Chemotherapy for mesothelioma - Chemotherapy uses drugs to kill cancer cells. In mesothelioma, chemotherapy may be put directly into the chest.
Radiation therapy for mesothelioma - Radiation is useful because mesothelioma is made up of rapid growing cells and radiation is most effective on cells that divide rapidly.
How to prevent malignant mesothelioma? - The risk of malignant mesothelioma can be reduced by avoiding getting exposed to asbestos.
What's the prognosis of malignant mesothelioma? - The survival time after diagnosis of malignant mesothelioma is about one year. Prognosis for malignant mesothelioma depends on how early it is diagnosed.
What about the mesothelioma lawsuits? - Mesothelioma lawsuits are classified into two groups: personal injury, and wrongful death. Mesothelioma lawsuits usually seek compensation for medical costs.
Who is mesothelioma attorney (lawyer)? - The benefits of hiring a mesothelioma attorney are numerous. A mesothelioma lawyer is able to provide both advice and assistance.