What's the treatment for non-small cell lung cancer by stage?Occult Stage: Cancer cells are found in sputum, but no tumor can be found in the lung. Treatment will include tests to find the main tumor. Lung cancer that is found at this early stage can often be cured by surgery.
Stage 0: Cancer is found only in a local area and only in a few layers of cells. It has not grown through the top lining of the lung. Another term for this type of lung cancer is carcinoma in situ. Treatment may be either surgery or photodynamic therapy used internally.
Stage I: In stage I, the cancer has reached higher layers of the lung but has not spread into the lymph nodes or beyond the lung. Primary treatment is surgery to remove sections of the lung. Depending on the circumstances, lobectomy (removal of a whole lobe) or partial lobectomy is standard treatment. It should be noted that to date there is no convincing evidence that early-stage lung cancer patients who supplement their surgical treatment with radiation or chemotherapy have higher survival rates. Overall five-year survival rates for early stage-cancer are in the range of 30% to 50%. Clinical trials should be considered for prevention of recurring cancer after primary treatment.
- Radiation therapy (for patients who cannot be operated on)
- Clinical trials of chemotherapy following surgery
- Clinical trials of chemoprevention following other therapy
- Clinical trials of photodynamic therapy used internally
Stage II: In Stage II the cancer cells have spread to nearby lymph nodes. Surgery, usually removal of a lobe (lobectomy) or one lung (pneumonectomy) is the treatment of choice. Five-year survival rates associated with Stage II surgery can vary. Clinical trials should be considered for prevention of recurring cancer after primary treatment. To date, however, supplementing surgical treatment with radiation or chemotherapy does not appear to prolong survival rates.
- Surgery to take out the tumor and lymph nodes
- Radiation therapy (for patients who cannot be operated on)
- Surgery and/or radiation therapy with or without chemotherapy
Stage III: In stage III, the cancer cells have spread beyond the lung to the chest wall, diaphragm, or further lymph nodes, such as those in the neck. Generally, Stage III tumors are treated with radiation and sometimes with surgery, chemotherapy, or combinations of each. Combination approaches may be significantly more effective than single treatments.
Treatment options in stage IIIA (T1, N2, M0) or (T2, N2, M0) or (T3, N1, M0) or (T3, N2, M0): Surgery is often possible if used in combination with chemotherapy and radiation
- Radiation treatment.
- Clinical trials with concurrent cisplatin-based chemotherapy combinations plus radiation followed by surgery and/or preventive radiation therapy to the brain.
Treatment options in stage IIIB (Any T, N3, M0) or (T4, Any N, M0):
- Radiation alone.
- Chemotherapy alone.
- Clinical trials with concurrent cisplatin-based chemotherapy combinations plus radiation sometimes followed by surgery and/or preventive radiation therapy to the brain.
- Clinical trials using induction chemotherapy alone to reduce tumors, which may then be treated with surgery or radiation.
- Paclitaxel or gemcitabine as a single agent for second-line treatment.
- Other clinical trials (hyperfractionated radiation, drugs that enhance radiation, immunotherapy, and others).
Stage IV: Cancer has spread, or metastasized, to different sites in the body, which may include the liver, brain or other organs. Treatment options in stage IV:
- Combination of two- or three-drug chemotherapies that include platinum-based and other drugs. External-beam radiation for symptoms.
- Paclitaxel or gemcitabine as a single agent.
- Other clinical trials.
- If metastasized cancer involves only one or two areas in the brain, it may respond to surgical resection followed by radiation to the brain.
Recurrent/relapsed stage: Cancer has progressed or returned (recurred/relapsed) following an initial treatment with surgery, radiation therapy and/or chemotherapy. Treatment options in recurrent stage:
- Radiation for symptom control.
- If metastasized cancer strikes only one site and in the brain, it may be treated surgically and with postoperative whole-brain radiation. Prolonged disease-free survival is possible.
- Laser therapy or interstitial radiation for tumors within the airways.
- Stereotactic radiosurgery (in a few selected patients).
More information on lung cancerWhat is lung cancer? - Lung cancer is a malignant tumour of the lungs. Lung cancer is the cancer that originates in the tissues of the lungs. Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer deaths.
What types of lung cancer are there? - The lungs are made up of several kinds of cells that perform different functions. The type of lung cancer depends on which cell type is affected.
What is small cell lung cancer? - Small cell lung cancer is a type of lung cancer in which the cells look like oats. Small cell lung cancer is almost always caused by smoking.
What is non-small cell lung cancer? - Non-small cell lung cancers include squamous cell carcinoma, adenocarcinoma, large cell carcinoma, adenosquamous carcinoma, and undifferentiated carcinoma.
What causes lung cancer? - Cigarette smoking is the most significant cause of lung cancer. Asbestos exposure increases the risk of lung cancer. Lung diseases create a risk for lung cancer.
What're the risk factors for lung cancer? - Risk factors for lung cancer include tobacco smoking, marijuana, asbestos, radon, lung diseases, radiation therapy, work-related exposure to substances.
What're the signs and symptoms of lung cancer? - Lung cancer may cause a number of symptoms. The primary symptoms of lung cancer are cough, shortness of breath, hoarseness, blood in the sputum, and pain.
How is lung cancer diagnosed? - Diagnosis of lung cancer may be made by physical examination, chest X rays, bronchoscopy, or percutaneous needle biopsy. Lung biopsy is the most definitive diagnostic tool for cancer.
What're the lung cancer stages? - Lung cancer is staged according to its location, size, cell type, and spread. Knowing the stage of lung cancer helps the doctor set the treatment plan.
What're the treatments for lung cancer? - The treatment of lung cancer depends on the type and stage of the disease and includes surgery, radiation therapy, and chemotherapy.
What's the treatment for small cell lung cancer? - At limited stage treatments for small cell lung cancer include various combinations of chemotherapy, radiation.
What's the treatment for non-small cell lung cancer? - Surgery is the primary treatment for all non¨Csmall cell lung cancers. Radiation therapy may be administered.
Treatment for non-small cell lung cancer by stage - Stage III non-small cell lung cancer are treated with radiation and sometimes with surgery, chemotherapy, or combinations of each.
What's the prognosis of lung cancer survival rate? - The prognosis of lung cancer depends on the type of lung cancer, its stage, and the overall health of the patient.
How to prevent lung cancer? - Prevention of lung cancer includes quitting smoking and avoiding exposure to potentially cancer-causing substances in the work environment.
Asbestos lung cancer - The most serious hazard of exposure to asbestos is cancer. Lung cancer causes the largest number of deaths related to asbestos exposure.